C++ Programming Language

  • Last Updated : 27 Sep, 2023

C++ is the most used and most popular programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. C++ is a high-level and object-oriented programming language. This language allows developers to write clean and efficient code for large applications and software development, game development, and operating system programming. It is an expansion of the C programming language to include Object Oriented Programming(OOPs) and is used to develop programs for computers. This C++ Tutorial will cover all the basic to advanced topics of C++ like C++ basics, C++ functions, C++ classes, OOPs and STL concepts.

C++ Tutorial

What is C++?

C++ is a most popular cross-platform programming language which is used to create high-performance applications and software like OS, Games, E-commerce software, etc. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, as an extension of C language. C++ give a high level of control over system resources and memory.

Why Learn C++?

  • C++ is one of the most used and popular programming languages.
  • C++ is used in making operating systems, embedded systems, and Graphical User Interfaces.
  • It is an object-oriented programming language that implements all the OOPs concepts such as Abstraction, Encapsulation, and Inheritance, which gives a clear structure to programs and allows code to be reused, lowering development costs and providing security.
  • It is portable and can be used to create applications that can be adapted to multiple platforms.
  • C++ is easy to learn so that you can choose it as your first programming language.
  • It makes programming easy for programmers to switch to C++ because its syntax is similar to C, Java, and C#.

C++ Tutorial – Table of Content


C++ Overview

C++ Basics

C++ Variables and Constants

C++ Data Types and Literals

C++ Operators

C++ Input/Output

C++ Control Statements

C++ Functions

C++ Pointers and References

C++ Arrays

C++ Strings

C++ Structures and Unions

C++ Dynamic Memory Management

C++ Object-Oriented Programming

C++ Encapsulation and Abstraction

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Function Overloading

C++ Operator Overloading

C++ Inheritance

C++ Virtual Functions

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Files and Streams

C++ Templates

C++ Standard Template Library (STL)

C++ Iterators

C++ Preprocessors

C++ Namespace

Advanced C++

C vs C++

C++ vs Java

Competitive Programming in C++

C++ Interview Questions

Applications of C++

Here are the uses of C++ with real-world applications:

1. Operating Systems

C++ is most widely used programming language and become an ideal choice for developing operating systems. Mac OS X has majority of parts written in C++ and Most of Microsoft’s software like Windows, Microsoft Office, IDE Visual Studio, and Internet Explorer are also written in C++.

2. Games

C++ used for game development and companies use it as their first choice to develop gaming systems because C++ is very close to the machine so It can easily manipulate resources and able to built complex 3D games, multiplayer game, etc. Unreal game engine make games using C++.

3. Web Browsers

Most of the browsers in Computers are developed in C++ for effecting goals and Mozilla Firefox is totally developed by C++ and Google Applications and software like Chrome and Google File System are partly written in C++.

4. Compilers

Compilers of many programming languages are designed in C and C++ and this is because they are moderately lower-level when compared to other higher-level programming languages and C/C++ are closer to the hardware.

5. Embedded Systems

Embedded systems that need the program closer to the hardware such as smartwatches, medical equipment systems, mobile phones etc., are developed in C++ and It can perform a lot of low-level function calls, unlike different high-level programming languages.

FAQs on C++

1. What is the difference between C++ and C?




C++ was developed as an extension of C. C is a developed independent language.
C++ supports classes and objects. C does not support OOPs concepts.
Namespace is used by C++, to avoid name collisions. The namespace feature is not supported by C.

2. What is the difference between struct and class?


C++ is a structure that is the same as a class except for a few differences like security. The difference between struct and class are given below:



Members of the structure are public by default. Members of the class are private by default.
When deriving a struct from a class/struct, default access specifiers for base class/struct are public. When deriving a class, default access specifiers are private.

3. What do you mean by abstraction in C++?


Abstraction is the process of showing the necessary information to the user and hiding the details which programmers don’t want to show to the user or hiding the details which are irrelevant to a particular user.

4. What is C++ best for?


C++ is used in developing browsers, operating systems, and applications, as well as in-game programming, software engineering, data structures, etc.