Compiler Design Tutorial

  • Last Updated : 19 Apr, 2023

A compiler is software that translates or converts a program written in a high-level language (Source Language) into a low-level language (Machine Language). Compiler design is the process of developing a program or software that converts human-written code into machine code. It involves many stages like lexical analysis, parsing, semantic analysis, code generation, optimization, etc. The Key objective of compiler design is to automate the translation process, the correctness of output, and reporting errors in source code. The compiler is used by programming languages such as C, C++, C#, Java, etc.

In this compiler design tutorial, all the basic to advanced topics are included like lexical analysis, code generation, and optimization, runtime environment, etc.

Why do we learn compiler design?

A computer is a logical assembly of software and hardware. The hardware understands a language that is hard for humans to understand. So, we write programs in a high-level language, that is less complex for humans to understand and maintain in thoughts. Now, a series of transformations have been applied to high-level language programs to convert them into machine language.

Recent Articles on Compiler Design !

Introduction :

Lexical Analysis :

Syntax Analysis :

Syntax Directed Translation :

Code Generation and Optimization :

Runtime Environments :

FAQs on Compiler Design

Q.1 Write types of compilers?


There are three types of compilers given below:

  1. Single-Pass Compilers
  2. Two-Pass Compilers
  3. Multi-pass Compilers

Q.2 Difference between compiler and assembler?


Compiler Assembler
Compiler converts the source code which is written by the programmer to machine level language. Assembler converts the assembly code into the machine code.
Compiler converts the whole code into machine code. Assembler converts the code one by one.
It takes less execution time in conversion compared to an assembler. It takes more time than a compiler.
Input is the source code in a high-level language. Assembly level code as an input.
Examples: C, C++, Java compilers, etc. Examples: GAS, GNU assemblers.

Q.3 Discuss the various phases of a compiler?


The various phases of the compiler are given below:

  • Lexical Analyzer
  • Syntax Analyzer
  • Semantic Analyzer
  • Intermediate code generator
  • Code optimizer
  • Code generator

Q.4 What are assembler?


Assembler is a program that interprets assembly language written software programs into machine language that is known to the computer.

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