Spring is a lightweight and popular open-source Java-based framework developed by Rod Johnson in 2003. It is used to develop enterprise-level applications. It provides support to many other frameworks such as Hibernate, Tapestry, EJB, JSF, Struts, etc, so it is also called a framework of frameworks. It’s an application framework and IOC (Inversion of Control) container for the Java platform. The spring contains several modules like IOC, AOP, DAO, Context, WEB MVC, etc.
Spring framework is a Java platform that is open source. Rod Johnson created it, and it was first released under the Apache 2.0 license in June 2003.
When it comes to size and transparency, Spring is a featherweight. Spring framework’s basic version is about 2MB in size.
The Spring Framework’s core capabilities can be used to create any Java program, however there are modifications for constructing web applications on top of the Java EE platform. By offering a POJO-based programming model, the Spring framework aims to make J2EE development easier to use and to promote good programming habits.
Spring allows developers to use POJOs to create enterprise-class apps. The advantage of using simply POJOs is that you don’t require an EJB container product like an application server; instead, you may use a powerful servlet container like Tomcat or a commercial product.
Spring is set up in a modular approach. Even if there are a lot of packages and classes, you only need to worry about the ones you need and ignore the rest.
Spring does not reinvent the wheel; rather, it makes extensive use of existing technologies such as numerous ORM frameworks, logging frameworks, JEE, Quartz, and JDK timers, and other view technologies.
Because environment-dependent code is put into this framework, testing a Spring-written application is trivial. Furthermore, using JavaBeanstyle POJOs makes it easier to employ dependency injection for injecting test data.
Spring’s web framework is a well-designed web MVC framework that is an excellent alternative to web frameworks like Struts and other over-engineered or less popular web frameworks.
Spring provides a handy API for converting technology-specific exceptions (such as those raised by JDBC, Hibernate, or JDO) into consistent, unchecked exceptions.
IoC containers are typically lightweight, especially when compared to EJB containers, for example. This is useful for creating and distributing programmes on systems with limited memory and CPU resources.
Spring Beans are the objects forming the backbone of the user’s application and are managed by the Spring IoC container. They are created with the configuration metadata that the users supply to the container. These are instantiated, configured, wired, and managed by the IoC container.
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